October 27 Events
312 - Constantine is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. 939 - Æthelstan, the first king of all England, dies and is succeeded by his half-brother, Edmund I. 1275 - Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam. 1524 - French troops lay siege to Pavia. 1553 - Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva. 1644 - Second Battle of Newbury in the English Civil War. 1682 - Philadelphia is founded in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 1775 - King George III expands on his Proclamation of Rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies in his speech from the throne at the opening of Parliament. 1795 - The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S. 1806 - The French Army enters Berlin, following the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt. 1810 - United States annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida. 1838 - Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be killed. 1870 - Franco-Prussian War: Marshal Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces at the conclusion of the Siege of Metz along with 140,000 French soldiers. 1904 - The first underground New York City Subway line opens, later designated as the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line. 1907 - Fifteen people are killed in Hungary when a gunman opens fire on a crowd gathered at a church consecration. 1914 - First World War: The new British battleship HMS Audacious is sunk by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser Berlin. 1916 - Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasu V, is defeated by Fitawrari abte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zewditu I. 1922 - A referendum in Rhodesia rejects the country's annexation to the South African Union. 1924 - The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union. 1930 - Ratifications exchanged in London for the first London Naval Treaty go into effect immediately, further limiting the expensive naval arms race among its five signatories. 1936 - Mrs Wallis Simpson obtains her divorce, which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne. 1944 - World War II: German forces capture Banská Bystrica during Slovak National Uprising thus bringing it to an end. 1954 - Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force. 1958 - Iskander Mirza, the first President of Pakistan, is deposed by General Ayub Khan, who had been appointed the enforcer of martial law by Mirza 20 days earlier. 1961 - NASA tests the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1. 1962 - Major Rudolf Anderson of the United States Air Force becomes the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane is shot down over Cuba by a Soviet-supplied surface-to-air missile. 1962 - By refusing to agree to the firing of a nuclear torpedo at a US warship, Vasily Arkhipov averts nuclear war. 1962 - An aircraft carrying Enrico Mattei, post-war Italian administrator, crashes in mysterious circumstances. 1964 - Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of the Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launches his political career and comes to be known as "A Time for Choosing". 1967 - Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and others of the 'Baltimore Four' protest the Vietnam War by pouring blood on Selective Service records. 1971 - The Democratic Republic of the Congo is renamed Zaire. 1979 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains its independence from the United Kingdom. 1981 - Cold War: The Soviet submarine S-363 runs aground on the east coast of Sweden. 1986 - The British government suddenly deregulates financial markets, leading to a total restructuring of the way in which they operate in the country, in an event now referred to as the Big Bang. 1988 - Cold War: Ronald Reagan suspends construction of the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow due to Soviet listening devices in the building structure. 1991 - Turkmenistan achieves independence from the Soviet Union. 1992 - United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is murdered by shipmate Terry M. Helvey for being gay, precipitating debate about gays in the military that results in the United States' "Don't ask, don't tell" military policy. 1994 - Gliese 229B is the first Substellar Mass Object to be unquestionably identified. 1995 - Former Prime Minister of Italy Bettino Craxi is convicted in absentia of corruption. 1997 - The 1997 Asian financial crisis causes a crash in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. 1999 - Gunmen open fire in the Armenian Parliament, killing the Prime Minister and seven others. 2004 - The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals to win their first World Series in 86 years. 2014 - Britain withdraws from Afghanistan at the end of Operation Herrick, after 12 years four months and seven days. 2017 - Catalonia declares independence from Spain. 2018 - A gunman opens fire on a Pittsburgh synagogue killing 11 and injuring 6, including 4 police officers. 2019 - Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant founder and leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi kills himself and three children by detonating a suicide vest during the U.S. military Barisha raid in northwestern Syria. Births 892 - Emperor Ai of Tang, Chinese emperor 921 - Chai Rong, Chinese emperor 1156 - Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse 1335 - Taejo of Joseon 1401 - Catherine of Valois 1561 - Mary Sidney, English writer, patroness and translator 1572 - Marie Elisabeth of France, French princess 1615 - Christian I, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg, 1661 - Fyodor Apraksin, Russian admiral 1703 - Johann Gottlieb Graun, German violinist and composer 1744 - Mary Moser, English painter and academic 1760 - August Neidhardt von Gneisenau, Prussian field marshal 1765 - Nancy Storace, English soprano 1782 - Niccolò Paganini, Italian violinist and composer 1806 - Juan Seguín, American colonel, judge, and politician, 101st Mayor of San Antonio 1811 - Stevens T. Mason, American lawyer and politician, 1st Governor of Michigan 1811 - Isaac Singer, American actor and businessman, founded the Singer Corporation 1814 - Daniel H. Wells, American religious leader and politician, 3rd Mayor of Salt Lake City 1838 - John Davis Long, American lawyer and politician, 34th United States Secretary of the Navy 1842 - Giovanni Giolitti, Italian politician, 13th Prime Minister of Italy 1844 - Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Swedish journalist and politician, Nobel Prize laureate 1854 - William Alexander Smith, Scottish religious leader, founded the Boys' Brigade 1858 - Elliott Lewis, Australian politician, 19th Premier of Tasmania 1858 - Saitō Makoto, Japanese admiral and politician, 30th Prime Minister of Japan 1858 - Theodore Roosevelt, American colonel and politician, 26th President of the United States, Nobel Prize laureate 1865 - Charles Spencelayh, English painter and academic 1868 - William Gillies, Australian politician, 21st Premier of Queensland 1877 - Walt Kuhn, American painter and academic 1877 - George Thompson, English cricketer and umpire 1884 - Shirō Takasu, Japanese admiral 1885 - Sigrid Hjertén, Swedish painter 1890 - Toshinari Shōji, Japanese general 1894 - Agda Helin, Swedish actress 1894 - Oliver Leese, English-Welsh general 1894 - Fritz Sauckel, German sailor and politician 1904 - Riho Lahi, Estonian journalist and author 1906 - Peter Blume, Belarusian-American painter and sculptor 1906 - Earle Cabell, American banker and politician, Mayor of Dallas 1906 - Kazuo Ohno, Japanese dancer and educator 1908 - Lee Krasner, American painter 1910 - Jack Carson, Canadian-American actor and singer 1910 - Margaret Hutchinson Rousseau, American chemical engineer 1913 - Joe Medicine Crow, American anthropologist, historian, and author 1913 - Luigi Piotti, Italian race car driver 1914 - Ahmet Kireççi, Turkish wrestler 1914 - Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and playwright 1915 - Harry Saltzman, Canadian-French production manager and producer 1917 - Augustine Harris, English bishop 1917 - Oliver Tambo, South African lawyer and politician 1918 - Mihkel Mathiesen, Estonian engineer and politician 1918 - Teresa Wright, American actress and singer 1920 - Nanette Fabray, American actress, singer, and dancer 1920 - K. R. Narayanan, Indian lawyer and politician, 10th President of India 1921 - Warren Allen Smith, American journalist, author, and activist 1922 - Poul Bundgaard, Danish actor and singer 1922 - Ruby Dee, American actress and poet 1922 - Michel Galabru, French actor and playwright 1922 - Ralph Kiner, American baseball player and sportscaster 1923 - Roy Lichtenstein, American painter and sculptor 1923 - Ned Wertimer, American actor 1924 - Bonnie Lou, American singer-songwriter 1925 - Warren Christopher, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 63rd United States Secretary of State 1925 - Jane Connell, American actress and singer 1925 - Paul Fox, English broadcaster 1925 - Monica Sims, English radio host and producer 1926 - Boris Chetkov, Russian painter 1926 - Henri Fertet, French Resistance fighter. 1926 - H. R. Haldeman, American businessman and diplomat, 4th White House Chief of Staff 1926 - Takumi Shibano, Japanese author and translator 1927 - Dominick Argento, American composer and educator 1928 - Gilles Vigneault, Canadian singer-songwriter and poet 1929 - Myra Carter, American actress 1929 - Bill George, American football player 1929 - Maurice Robert Johnston, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire 1930 - Leo Baxendale, English cartoonist 1930 - Barry Supple, English historian and academic 1931 - Nawal El Saadawi, Egyptian physician, psychiatrist, and author 1931 - Anatoliy Zayaev, Ukrainian footballer and manager 1932 - Jean-Pierre Cassel, French actor 1932 - Harry Gregg, Northern Irish footballer and manager 1932 - Dolores Moore, American baseball player 1932 - Sylvia Plath, American poet, novelist, and short story writer 1933 - Floyd Cramer, American singer and pianist 1933 - Ryō Hanmura, Japanese author 1934 - Giorgos Konstantinou, Greek actor, director, and screenwriter 1935 - Maurício de Sousa, Brazilian journalist and cartoonist 1935 - Charlie Tagawa, Japanese-American banjo player and educator 1936 - Neil Sheehan, American journalist and author 1938 - Lara Parker, American actress and author 1939 - John Cleese, English actor, comedian, screenwriter and producer 1939 - Suzy Covey, American scholar and academic 1939 - Dallas Frazier, American country music singer-songwriter 1940 - John Gotti, American mob boss 1940 - Maxine Hong Kingston, American author and academic 1941 - Dave Costa, American football player 1941 - Warren Ryan, Australian rugby league player, coach, and sportscaster 1941 - Dick Trickle, American race car driver 1942 - Lee Greenwood, American singer-songwriter 1942 - Janusz Korwin-Mikke, Polish journalist and politician 1943 - Carmen Argenziano, American actor and producer 1943 - Jerry Rook, American basketball player and coach 1944 - J. A. Jance, American author and poet 1945 - Arild Andersen, Norwegian bassist and composer 1945 - Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Brazilian union leader and politician, 35th President of Brazil 1945 - Carrie Snodgress, American actress 1946 - Peter Martins, Danish dancer and choreographer 1946 - Steven R. Nagel, American colonel, engineer, and astronaut 1946 - Ivan Reitman, Slovak-Canadian actor, director, and producer 1949 - Garry Tallent, American bass player and record producer 1950 - Michael Driscoll, English economist and academic 1950 - Fran Lebowitz, American author 1950 - Július Šupler, Slovak ice hockey player and coach 1950 - A. N. Wilson, English journalist, historian, and author 1951 - K. K. Downing, English guitarist and songwriter 1951 - Carlos Frenk, Mexican-English physicist, cosmologist, and academic 1951 - Nancy Jacobs, American politician 1951 - Jayne Kennedy, American model, actress, and sportscaster 1952 - Roberto Benigni, Italian actor, director, and screenwriter 1952 - Francis Fukuyama, American political scientist, economist, and author 1952 - Atsuyoshi Furuta, Japanese footballer 1952 - Topi Sorsakoski, Finnish singer-songwriter 1953 - Peter Firth, English actor 1953 - Robert Picardo, American actor, director, and screenwriter 1954 - Jan Duursema, American illustrator 1954 - Mike Kelley, American artist and musician 1954 - Chris Tavaré, English cricketer and biologist 1955 - Debra Bowen, American lawyer and politician, 31st Secretary of State of California 1956 - Patty Sheehan, American golfer 1956 - Babis Tsertos, Greek singer-songwriter and bouzouki player 1957 - Glenn Hoddle, English footballer and manager 1957 - Peter Marc Jacobson, American actor, director, and producer 1958 - Gordon Cowans, English footballer 1958 - David Hazeltine, American pianist and composer 1958 - Simon Le Bon, English singer-songwriter 1958 - Jonathan Shapiro, South African political cartoonist who uses the pseudonym Zapiro 1958 - Felix Wurman, American cellist and composer 1959 - Rick Carlisle, American basketball player and coach 1960 - Tom Nieto, American baseball player, coach, and manager 1963 - David Hall, Australian horse trainer 1963 - Marla Maples, American model and actress 1963 - Tom McKean, Scottish runner 1964 - Mary T. Meagher, American swimmer 1964 - Mark Taylor, Australian cricketer and sportscaster 1964 - Ian Wells, English footballer 1965 - Mohan Kapoor, Indian television and film actor 1966 - Steve Almond, American author and educator 1966 - Kit Malthouse, English accountant and politician 1966 - Hege Nerland, Norwegian lawyer and politician 1966 - Masanobu Takashima, Japanese actor 1967 - Simone Moro, Italian mountaineer and pilot 1967 - Dejan Raičković, Montenegrin footballer and manager 1967 - Scott Weiland, American singer-songwriter 1968 - Dileep, Indian actor and producer 1968 - Alain Auderset, Swiss author and illustrator 1968 - Vinny Samways, English footballer and manager 1969 - Marek Napiórkowski, Polish jazz guitarist and composer 1969 - Michael Tarnat, German footballer 1970 - Karl Backman, Swedish guitarist and songwriter 1970 - Felix Bwalya, Zambian boxer 1970 - Adrian Erlandsson, Swedish drummer 1970 - Jonathan Stroud, English author 1970 - Ruslana Taran, Ukrainian sailor 1971 - Stefano Guidoni, Italian footballer 1971 - Jorge Soto, Peruvian footballer 1971 - Theodoros Zagorakis, Greek footballer and politician 1972 - Lee Clark, English footballer and manager 1972 - Elissa, Lebanese singer 1972 - Evan Coyne Maloney, American director, producer, and screenwriter 1972 - Maria Mutola, Mozambican runner and coach 1972 - Brad Radke, American baseball player 1973 - Jason Johnson, American baseball player 1973 - Semmy Schilt, Dutch kick-boxer and mixed martial artist 1975 - Nicola Mazzucato, Italian rugby player and coach 1975 - Aron Ralston, American mountaineer and engineer 1976 - Bobby Fish, American professional wrestler 1976 - Maneet Chauhan, Indian-American chef and author 1976 - Wilson Raimundo Júnior, Brazilian footballer 1977 - Jiří Jarošík, Czech footballer 1977 - Sheeri Rappaport, American actress 1977 - Kumar Sangakkara, Sri Lankan cricketer 1978 - Sergei Samsonov, Russian ice hockey player and scout 1978 - Vanessa-Mae, Singaporean-English violinist and skier 1979 - Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Japanese footballer 1980 - Sayuri Osuga, Japanese speed skater and cyclist 1980 - Tanel Padar, Estonian singer-songwriter and guitarist 1980 - Henriett Seth F., Hungarian autistic savant artist and author 1981 - Salem Al Fakir, Swedish singer and keyboard player 1981 - Sririta Jensen, Thai actress and model 1981 - Volkan Demirel, Turkish footballer 1981 - Kristi Richards, Canadian skier 1982 - Patrick Fugit, American actor and producer 1982 - Takashi Tsukamoto, Japanese actor and singer 1983 - Brent Clevlen, American baseball player 1983 - Takuro Okuyama, Japanese footballer 1983 - Martín Prado, Venezuelan baseball player 1984 - Sebastian Gacki, Canadian actor 1984 - Yi Jianlian, Chinese basketball player 1984 - Kostas Kapetanos, Greek footballer 1984 - Kelly Osbourne, English television personality 1984 - Brady Quinn, American football player 1984 - Emilie Ullerup, Danish-Canadian actress 1985 - Sirli Hanni, Estonian biathlete 1985 - Sandra Volk, Slovenian tennis player 1986 - Jon Niese, American baseball player 1986 - Matty Pattison, South African-English footballer 1986 - David Warner, Australian cricketer 1987 - Thelma Aoyama, Japanese singer 1987 - Björn Barrefors, Swedish decathlete and heptathlete. 1987 - Andrew Bynum, American basketball player 1987 - Guillaume Franke, French-German rugby player 1988 - Brady Ellison, American archer 1988 - Viktor Genev, Bulgarian footballer 1988 - Illimar Pärn, Estonian ski jumper 1988 - Evan Turner, American basketball player 1989 - Mark Barron, American football player 1990 - Dimitrios Gkourtsas, Greek footballer 1990 - Oktovianus Maniani, Indonesian footballer 1991 - Shohei Takahashi, Japanese footballer 1992 - Stephan El Shaarawy, Italian footballer 1992 - Emily Hagins, American director, producer, and screenwriter 1992 - Brandon Saad, American ice hockey player 1993 - Kiefer Ravena, Filipino basketball player 1997 - Lonzo Ball, American basketball player 1999 - Haruka Kudo, Japanese singer and actress Deaths 939 - Æthelstan, English king 1269 - Ulrich III, Duke of Carinthia 1272 - Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy 1277 - Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor of England 1303 - Beatrice of Castile, wife of King Afonso III of Portugal 1312 - John II, Duke of Brabant 1312 - Gentile Portino da Montefiore 1326 - Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester 1327 - Elizabeth de Burgh, queen of Robert the Bruce 1329 - Mahaut, Countess of Artois 1331 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer 1430 - Vytautas, Lithuanian ruler 1439 - Albert II of Germany 1441 - Margery Jourdemayne, executed for treasonable witchcraft 1449 - Ulugh Beg, Persian astronomer, mathematician and sultan 1485 - Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch philosopher, poet and educator 1505 - Ivan III of Russia 1513 - George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros, English nobleman 1553 - Michael Servetus, Spanish physician and theologian 1561 - Lope de Aguirre, Spanish explorer 1573 - Laurentius Petri, Swedish archbishop 1605 - Akbar, Mughal emperor 1613 - Gabriel Báthory, Prince of Transylvania 1617 - Ralph Winwood, English lawyer and politician, English Secretary of State 1652 - Henry II, Count of Nassau-Siegen 1666 - Robert Hubert, French watchmaker 1670 - Vavasor Powell, Welsh minister 1674 - Hallgrímur Pétursson, Icelandic minister and poet 1675 - Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician and academic 1789 - John Cook, American farmer and politician, 6th Governor of Delaware 1812 - Isaac Brock, British army officer and administrator, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada 1816 - Santō Kyōden, Japanese poet and painter 1880 - Thrasyvoulos Zaimis, Greek soldier and politician, 48th Prime Minister of Greece 1917 - Arthur Rhys-Davids, English lieutenant and pilot 1926 - Warren Wood, American golfer and soldier 1927 - Squizzy Taylor, Australian gangster 1929 - Théodore Tuffier, French surgeon 1930 - Ellen Hayes, American mathematician and astronomer 1935 - Ernest Eldridge, English race car driver 1942 - Helmuth Hübener, German activist 1944 – Judith Auer, German World War II resistance fighter 1947 - William Fay, Irish actor and producer, co-founded the Abbey Theatre 1949 - Marcel Cerdan, Algerian-French boxer 1953 - Thomas Wass, English cricketer 1957 - James McGirr, Australian politician, 28th Premier of New South Wales 1962 - Rudolf Anderson, American soldier and pilot 1962 - Enrico Mattei, Italian businessman and politician 1968 - Lise Meitner, Austrian-English physicist and academic 1974 - C. P. Ramanujam, Indian mathematician and academic 1975 - Rex Stout, American detective novelist 1977 - James M. Cain, American journalist and author 1980 - Judy LaMarsh, Canadian soldier, lawyer, and politician, 42nd Secretary of State for Canada 1980 - John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, American physicist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate 1982 - Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes, President of Guatemala 1988 - Charles Hawtrey, English actor, singer, and pianist 1990 - Xavier Cugat, Spanish-American violinist, bandleader, and actor 1990 - Jacques Demy, French actor, singer, director, and screenwriter 1990 - Elliott Roosevelt, American general and author 1990 - Ugo Tognazzi, Italian actor, director, and screenwriter 1991 - George Barker, English author and poet 1992 - David Bohm, American-English physicist and philosopher 1992 - Allen R. Schindler, Jr. American sailor 1996 - Arthur Tremblay, Canadian lawyer and politician 1997 - Mahala Andrews, British vertebrae palaeontologist 1999 - Robert Mills, American physicist and academic 1999 - Charlotte Perriand, French architect and designer 2000 - Walter Berry, Austrian lyric bass-baritone 2001 - Pradeep Kumar, Indian actor, director, and producer 2002 - Tom Dowd, American record producer and engineer 2002 - Valve Pormeister, Estonian architect 2003 - Rod Roddy, American game show announcer 2003 - Stephanie Tyrell, American songwriter and producer 2004 - Lester Lanin, American bandleader 2004 - Paulo Sérgio Oliveira da Silva, Brazilian footballer 2004 - Zdenko Runjić, Croatian songwriter and producer 2005 - Jerry Cooke, Ukrainian-American photographer and journalist 2006 - Jozsef Gregor, Hungarian opera singer 2006 - Reko Lundán, Finnish journalist and author 2006 - Marlin McKeever, American football player 2006 - Joe Niekro, American baseball player 2006 - Brad Will, American journalist and activist 2007 - Moira Lister, South African actress 2008 - Chris Bryant, English actor and screenwriter 2008 - Ray Ellis, American conductor and producer 2008 - Frank Nagai, Japanese singer 2008 - Roy Stewart, Jamaican-English actor and stuntman 2009 - John David Carson, American actor 2009 - August Coppola, American author and academic 2009 - David Shepherd, English cricketer and umpire 2010 - Néstor Kirchner, Argentinian lawyer and politician, 51st President of Argentina 2011 - James Hillman, American psychologist and author 2011 - Robert Pritzker, American businessman, co-founded Marmon Group 2012 - Terry Callier, American singer-songwriter and guitarist 2012 - Angelo Maria Cicolani, Italian engineer and politician 2012 - Regina Dourado, Brazilian actress 2012 - Hans Werner Henze, German composer and educator 2012 - Rodney S. Quinn, American colonel, pilot, and politician, 44th Secretary of State of Maine 2012 - Göran Stangertz, Swedish actor and director 2013 - Noel Davern, Irish lawyer and politician, Minister for Education and Skills 2013 - Leonard Herzenberg, American immunologist, geneticist, and academic 2013 - Luigi Magni, Italian director and screenwriter 2013 - Lou Reed, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, producer, and actor 2013 - Michael Wilkes, English general and politician, Lieutenant Governor of Jersey 2013 - Vinko Coce, Croatian opera and pop singer 2014 - Daniel Boulanger, French actor and screenwriter 2014 - Shin Hae-chul, South Korean singer-songwriter and producer 2014 - Starke Taylor, American soldier and politician, mayor of Dallas 2015 - Ayerdhal, French author 2015 - Ranjit Roy Chaudhury, Indian pharmacologist and academic 2015 - Betsy Drake, French-American actress and singer 2015 - Philip French, English journalist, critic, and producer 2016 - Takahito, Prince Mikasa, member of the Imperial Family of Japan 2018 - Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha, chairman of Leicester City F.C 2019 - Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ; suicide Holidays and observances Christian feast day: *Abbán *Abraham the Poor *Frumentius *Gaudiosus of Naples *Kaleb of Axum *Namatius *Oran of Iona *October 27 Černová Tragedy Day Flag Day Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines from United Kingdom in 1979. Navy Day World Day for Audiovisual Heritage
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