July 9 Events
491 - Odoacer makes a night assault with his Heruli guardsmen, engaging Theoderic the Great in Ad Pinetam. Both sides suffer heavy losses, but in the end Theodoric forces Odoacer back into Ravenna. 551 - A major earthquake strikes Beirut, triggering a devastating tsunami that affected the coastal towns of Byzantine Phoenicia, causing thousands of deaths. 660 - Korean forces under general Kim Yu-sin of Silla defeat the army of Baekje in the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. 869 - The 8.4–9.0 Sanriku earthquake strikes the area around Sendai in northern Honshu, Japan. Inundation from the tsunami extended several kilometers inland. 969 - The Fatimid general Jawhar leads the Friday prayer in Fustat in the name of Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah, thereby symbolically completing the Fatimid conquest of Egypt. 1357 - Emperor Charles IV assists in laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague. 1386 - The Old Swiss Confederacy makes great strides in establishing control over its territory by soundly defeating the Archduchy of Austria in the Battle of Sempach. 1401 - Timur attacks the Jalairid Sultanate and destroys Baghdad. 1540 - King Henry VIII of England annuls his marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. 1572 - Nineteen Catholics suffer martyrdom for their beliefs in the Dutch town of Gorkum. 1609 - Bohemia is granted freedom of religion through the Letter of Majesty by the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II. 1701 - A Bourbon force under Nicolas Catinat withdraws from a smaller Habsburg force under Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Battle of Carpi. 1745 - French victory in the Battle of Melle allows them to capture Ghent in the days after. 1755 - The Braddock Expedition is soundly defeated by a smaller French and Native American force in its attempt to capture Fort Duquesne in what is now downtown Pittsburgh. 1762 - Catherine the Great becomes Empress of Russia following the coup against her husband, Peter III. 1776 - George Washington orders the Declaration of Independence to be read out to members of the Continental Army in Manhattan, while thousands of British troops on Staten Island prepare for the Battle of Long Island. 1789 - In Versailles, the National Assembly reconstitutes itself as the National Constituent Assembly and begins preparations for a French constitution. 1790 - The Swedish Navy captures one third of the Russian Baltic fleet. 1793 - The Act Against Slavery in Upper Canada bans the importation of slaves and will free those who are born into slavery after the passage of the Act at 25 years of age. 1807 - The Treaties of Tilsit are signed by Napoleon I of France and Alexander I of Russia. 1810 - Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland as part of the First French Empire. 1811 - Explorer David Thompson posts a sign near what is now Sacajawea State Park in Washington state, claiming the Columbia District for the United Kingdom. 1815 - Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord becomes the first Prime Minister of France. 1816 - Argentina declares independence from Spain. 1821 - Four hundred and seventy prominent Cypriots including Archbishop Kyprianos are executed in response to Cypriot aid to the Greek War of Independence. 1850 - U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies after eating raw fruit and iced milk; he is succeeded in office by Vice President Millard Fillmore. 1850 - Persian prophet Báb is executed in Tabriz, Persia. 1863 - American Civil War: The Siege of Port Hudson ends, giving the Union complete control of the Mississippi River. 1868 - The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing African Americans full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law. 1875 - The Herzegovina Uprising against Ottoman rule begins, which would last until 1878 and have far-reaching implications throughout the Balkans. 1877 - The inaugural Wimbledon Championships begins. 1893 - Daniel Hale Williams, American heart surgeon, performs the first successful open-heart surgery in United States without anesthesia. 1896 - William Jennings Bryan delivers his Cross of Gold speech advocating bimetallism at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. 1900 - The Federation of Australia is given royal assent. 1900 - The Governor of Shanxi province in North China orders the execution of 45 foreign Christian missionaries and local church members, including children. 1918 - In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history. 1922 - Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking the world swimming record and the 'minute barrier'. 1932 - The state of São Paulo revolts against the Brazilian Federal Government, starting the Constitutionalist Revolution. 1937 - The silent film archives of Fox Film Corporation are destroyed by the 1937 Fox vault fire. 1943 - World War II: The Allied invasion of Sicily soon causes the downfall of Mussolini and forces Hitler to break off the Battle of Kursk. 1944 - World War II: American forces take Saipan, bringing the Japanese archipelago within range of B-29 raids, and causing the downfall of the Tojo government. 1944 - World War II: Continuation War: Finland wins the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in northern Europe. The Red Army withdraws its troops from Ihantala and digs into a defensive position, thus ending the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive. 1955 - The Russell–Einstein Manifesto calls for a reduction of the risk of nuclear warfare. 1956 - The 7.7 Amorgos earthquake shakes the Cyclades island group in the Aegean Sea with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX. The shaking and the destructive tsunami that followed left fifty-three people dead. A damaging M7.2 aftershock occurred minutes after the mainshock. 1958 - A 7.8 strike-slip earthquake in Alaska causes a landslide that produces a megatsunami. The runup from the waves reached on the rim of Lituya Bay; five people were killed. 1962 - Starfish Prime tests the effects of a nuclear test at orbital altitudes. 1979 - A car bomb destroys a Renault motor car owned by "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld outside their home in France in an unsuccessful assassination attempt. 1982 - Pan Am Flight 759 crashes in Kenner, Louisiana, killing all 145 people on board and eight others on the ground. 1986 - The New Zealand Parliament passes the Homosexual Law Reform Act legalising homosexuality in New Zealand. 1993 - The Parliament of Canada passes the Nunavut Act leading to the 1999 creation of Nunavut, dividing the Northwest Territories into arctic and sub-arctic lands based on a plebiscite. 1995 - The Navaly church bombing is carried out by the Sri Lanka Air Force killing 125 Tamil civilian refugees. 1999 - Days of student protests begin after Iranian police and hardliners attack a student dormitory at the University of Tehran. 2002 - The African Union is established in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, replacing the Organisation of African Unity. The organization's first chairman is Thabo Mbeki, President of South Africa. 2006 - One hundred and twenty-five people are killed when S7 Airlines Flight 778, an Airbus A310 passenger jet, veers off the runway while landing in wet conditions at Irkutsk Airport in Siberia. 2011 - South Sudan gains independence and secedes from Sudan. Births 1249 - Emperor Kameyama of Japan 1455 - Frederick IV of Baden, Dutch bishop 1511 - Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg 1526 - Elizabeth of Austria, Polish noble 1577 - Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, English-American soldier and politician, Colonial Governor of Virginia 1578 - Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor 1654 - Emperor Reigen of Japan 1686 - Philip Livingston, American merchant and politician 1689 - Alexis Piron, French epigrammatist and playwright 1721 - Johann Nikolaus Götz, German poet and author 1753 - William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock, English admiral and politician, 34th Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland 1764 - Ann Ward, English author and poet 1775 - Matthew Lewis, English author and playwright 1800 - Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, German physician, pathologist, and anatomist 1808 - Alexander William Doniphan, American lawyer and colonel 1819 - Elias Howe, American inventor, invented the sewing machine 1825 - A. C. Gibbs, American lawyer and politician, 2nd Governor of Oregon 1828 - Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian cardinal 1834 - Jan Neruda, Czech journalist and poet 1836 - Camille of Renesse-Breidbach 1848 - Robert I, Duke of Parma 1853 - William Turner Dannat, American painter 1856 - John Verran, English-Australian politician, 26th Premier of South Australia 1858 - Franz Boas, German-American anthropologist and linguist 1867 - Georges Lecomte, French author and playwright 1879 - Carlos Chagas, Brazilian physician and parasitologist 1879 - Ottorino Respighi, Italian composer and conductor 1887 - James Ormsbee Chapin, American-Canadian painter and illustrator 1887 - Saturnino Herrán, Mexican painter 1887 - Samuel Eliot Morison, American admiral and historian 1889 - Léo Dandurand, American-Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and referee 1893 - George Geary, English cricketer and coach 1901 - Barbara Cartland, prolific English author 1902 - Peter Acland, English soldier 1905 - Clarence Campbell, Canadian ice hockey player and referee 1907 - Eddie Dean, American singer-songwriter 1908 - Allamah Rasheed Turabi, Pakistani philosopher and scholar 1908 - Minor White, American photographer, critic, and educator 1909 - Basil Wolverton, American author and illustrator 1910 - Govan Mbeki, South African anti-apartheid and ANC leader and activist 1911 - Mervyn Peake, English author and illustrator 1911 - John Archibald Wheeler, American physicist and author 1914 - Willi Stoph, German engineer and politician, 4th Prime Minister of East Germany 1914 - Mac Wilson, Australian rules footballer 1915 - David Diamond, American composer and educator 1915 - Lee Embree, American sergeant and photographer 1916 - Dean Goffin, New Zealand composer 1916 - Edward Heath, English colonel and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1917 - Krystyna Dańko, Polish orphan, survivor of Holocaust 1918 - Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn, Dutch mathematician and academic 1918 - Jarl Wahlström, Finnish 12th General of The Salvation Army 1921 - David C. Jones, American general 1922 - Angelines Fernández, Spanish-Mexican actress 1922 - Jim Pollard, American basketball player and coach 1924 - Pierre Cochereau, French organist and composer 1925 - Guru Dutt, Indian actor, director, and producer 1925 - Charles E. Wicks, American engineer, author, and academic 1925 - Ronald I. Spiers, American ambassador 1926 - Murphy Anderson, American illustrator 1926 - Ben Roy Mottelson, American-Danish physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate 1926 - Pedro Dellacha, Argentine football defender and coach 1926 - Mathilde Krim, Italian-American medical researcher and health educator 1927 - Ed Ames, American singer and actor 1927 - Red Kelly, Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and politician 1928 - Federico Bahamontes, Spanish cyclist 1928 - Vince Edwards, American actor, singer, and director 1929 - Lee Hazlewood, American singer-songwriter and producer 1929 - Jesse McReynolds, American singer and mandolin player 1929 - Chi Haotian, Chinese general 1929 - Hassan II of Morocco 1930 - K. Balachander, Indian actor, director, producer, and screenwriter 1930 - Buddy Bregman, American composer and conductor 1930 - Janice Lourie, American computer scientist and graphic artist 1930 - Elsa Lystad, Norwegian actress 1930 - Roy McLean, South African cricketer and rugby player 1931 - Haynes Johnson, American journalist and author 1931 - Sylvia Bacon, American judge 1932 - Donald Rumsfeld, American captain and politician, 13th United States Secretary of Defense 1932 - Amitzur Shapira, Israeli sprinter and long jumper 1933 - Oliver Sacks, English-American neurologist, author, and academic 1934 - Michael Graves, American architect, designed the Portland Building and the Humana Building 1935 - Wim Duisenberg, Dutch economist and politician, Dutch Minister of Finance 1935 - Mercedes Sosa, Argentinian singer and activist 1935 - Michael Williams, English actor 1936 - June Jordan, American poet and educator 1936 - David Zinman, American violinist and conductor 1937 - David Hockney, English painter and photographer 1938 - Brian Dennehy, American actor 1938 - Sanjeev Kumar, Indian film actor 1940 - David B. Frohnmayer, American lawyer and politician, 12th Oregon Attorney General 1940 - Eugene Victor Wolfenstein, American psychoanalyst and theorist 1941 - Mac MacLeod, English musician 1942 - David Chidgey, Baron Chidgey, English engineer and politician 1942 - Richard Roundtree, American actor 1943 - John Casper, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut 1944 - Judith M. Brown, Indian-English historian and academic 1944 - John Cunniff, American ice hockey player and coach 1945 - Dean Koontz, American author and screenwriter 1945 - Root Boy Slim, American singer-songwriter and guitarist 1946 - Bon Scott, Scottish-Australian singer-songwriter 1947 - Haruomi Hosono, Japanese singer-songwriter, bass player, and producer 1947 - Mitch Mitchell, English drummer 1947 - O. J. Simpson, American football player and actor 1947 - Patrick Wormald, English historian 1948 - Hassan Wirajuda, Indonesian lawyer and politician, 15th Indonesian Minister of Foreign Affairs 1949 - Raoul Cédras, Haitian military officer and politician 1950 - Amal ibn Idris al-Alami, Moroccan physician and neurosurgeon 1950 - Adriano Panatta, Italian tennis player and sailor 1950 - Viktor Yanukovych, Ukrainian engineer and politician, 4th President of Ukraine 1951 - Chris Cooper, American actor 1951 - Māris Gailis, Latvian politician, businessman, and former Prime Minister of Latvia 1952 - John Tesh, American pianist, composer, and radio and television host 1953 - Margie Gillis, Canadian dancer and choreographer 1953 - Thomas Ligotti, American author 1954 - Théophile Abega, Cameroonian footballer and politician 1954 - Kevin O'Leary, Canadian journalist and businessman 1955 - Steve Coppell, English footballer and manager 1955 - Lindsey Graham, American colonel, lawyer, and politician 1955 - Jimmy Smits, American actor and producer 1955 - Willie Wilson, American baseball player and manager 1956 - Tom Hanks, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter 1956 - Michael Lederer, American author, poet, and playwright 1957 - Marc Almond, English singer-songwriter 1957 - Tim Kring, American screenwriter and producer 1957 - Kelly McGillis, American actress 1957 - Paul Merton, English comedian, actor, and screenwriter 1958 - Abdul Latiff Ahmad, Malaysian politician 1958 - Jacob Joseph, Malaysian football coach 1959 - Jim Kerr, Scottish singer-songwriter and keyboard player 1959 - Kevin Nash, American wrestler 1959 - Clive Stafford Smith, English lawyer and author 1960 - Yūko Asano, Japanese actress and singer 1960 - Wally Fullerton Smith, Australian rugby league player 1960 - Eduardo Montes-Bradley, Argentinian journalist, photographer, and author 1963 - Klaus Theiss, German footballer 1964 - Courtney Love, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actress 1964 - Gianluca Vialli, Italian footballer and coach 1965 - Frank Bello, American bass player 1965 - Thomas Jahn, German director and screenwriter 1965 - Jason Rhoades, American sculptor 1966 - Pamela Adlon, American actress and voice artist 1966 - Zheng Cao, Chinese-American soprano and actress 1966 - Gary Glasberg, American television writer and producer 1966 - Marco Pennette, American screenwriter and producer 1967 - Gunnar Axén, Swedish politician 1967 - Yordan Letchkov, Bulgarian footballer 1967 - Mark Stoops, American football player and coach 1968 - Paolo Di Canio, Italian footballer and manager 1968 - Lars Gyllenhaal, Swedish historian and author 1969 - Nicklas Barker, Swedish singer-songwriter and guitarist 1969 - Jason Kearton, Australian footballer and coach 1970 - Trent Green, American football player and sportscaster 1970 - Masami Tsuda, Japanese author and illustrator 1971 - Marc Andreessen, American software developer, co-founded Netscape 1972 - Ara Babajian, American drummer and songwriter 1973 - Kelly Holcomb, American football player and sportscaster 1974 - Siân Berry, English environmentalist and politician 1974 - Ian Bradshaw, Barbadian cricketer 1974 - Gary Kelly, Irish footballer 1974 - Nikola Šarčević, Swedish singer-songwriter and bass player 1975 - Shelton Benjamin, American wrestler 1975 - Isaac Brock, American singer-songwriter and guitarist 1975 - Robert Koenig, American director, producer, and screenwriter 1975 - Craig Quinnell, Welsh rugby player 1975 - Jack White, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer 1976 - Thomas Cichon, Polish-German footballer and manager 1976 - Fred Savage, American actor, director, and producer 1976 - Radike Samo, Fijian-Australian rugby player 1978 - Kara Goucher, American runner 1978 - Nuno Santos, Portuguese footballer 1979 - Gary Chaw, Malaysian Chinese singer-songwriter 1981 - Lee Chun-soo, South Korean footballer 1981 - Junauda Petrus, American author and performance artist 1982 - Alecko Eskandarian, American soccer player and manager 1982 - Sakon Yamamoto, Japanese race car driver 1984 - Chris Campoli, Canadian ice hockey player 1984 - Gianni Fabiano, Italian footballer 1984 - Jacob Hoggard, Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist 1984 - Ave Pajo, Estonian footballer 1984 - Piia Suomalainen, Finnish tennis player 1984 - LA Tenorio, Filipino basketball player 1985 - Paweł Korzeniowski, Polish swimmer 1985 - Ashley Young, English footballer 1986 - Sébastien Bassong, Cameroonian footballer 1986 - Simon Dumont, American skier 1986 - Kiely Williams, American singer-songwriter and dancer 1987 - Gert Jõeäär, Estonian cyclist 1987 - Rebecca Sugar, American animator, composer, and screenwriter 1988 - Raul Rusescu, Romanian footballer 1990 - Earl Bamber, New Zealand race car driver 1990 - Fábio, Brazilian footballer 1990 - Rafael, Brazilian footballer 1991 - Mitchel Musso, American actor and singer 1993 - Mitch Larkin, Australian swimmer 1993 - DeAndre Yedlin, American footballer 1999 - Claire Corlett, American voice actress Deaths 230 - Empress Dowager Bian, Cao Cao's wife 518 - Anastasius I Dicorus, Byzantine emperor 715 - Naga, Japanese prince 880 - Ariwara no Narihira, Japanese poet 981 - Ramiro Garcés, king of Viguera 1169 - Guido of Ravenna, Italian cartographer, entomologist and historian 1228 - Stephen Langton, English cardinal and theologian 1270 - Stephen Báncsa, Hungarian cardinal 1386 - Leopold III, Duke of Austria 1441 - Jan van Eyck, Dutch painter 1546 - Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell, Scottish statesman 1553 - Maurice, Elector of Saxony 1654 - Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans 1706 - Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, Canadian captain and explorer 1737 - Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1742 - John Oldmixon, English historian, poet, and playwright 1746 - Philip V of Spain 1747 - Giovanni Bononcini, Italian cellist and composer 1766 - Jonathan Mayhew, American minister 1795 - Henry Seymour Conway, English general and politician, Secretary of State for the Northern Department 1797 - Edmund Burke, Irish-English philosopher, academic, and politician 1828 - Cathinka Buchwieser, German operatic singer and actress 1850 - Báb, Persian religious leader, founded Bábism 1850 - Zachary Taylor, American general and politician, 12th President of the United States 1852 - Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American lawyer and politician, 2nd United States Secretary of the Interior 1856 - Amedeo Avogadro, Italian chemist and academic 1856 - James Strang, American religious leader and politician 1880 - Paul Broca, French physician and anatomist 1882 - Ignacio Carrera Pinto, Chilean captain 1903 - Alphonse François Renard, Belgian geologist and photographer 1927 - John Drew, Jr., American actor 1932 - King Camp Gillette, American businessman, founded the Gillette Company 1937 - Oliver Law, American commander 1938 - Benjamin N. Cardozo, American lawyer and jurist 1947 - Lucjan Żeligowski, Polish-Lithuanian general and politician 1949 - Fritz Hart, English-Australian composer and conductor 1951 - Harry Heilmann, American baseball player and sportscaster 1955 - Don Beauman, English race car driver 1955 - Adolfo de la Huerta, Mexican politician and provisional president, 1920 1959 - Ferenc Talányi, Slovene journalist and painter 1962 - Georges Bataille, French philosopher, novelist, and poet 1961 - Whittaker Chambers, American spy and witness in Hiss case 1967 - Eugen Fischer, German physician and academic 1967 - Fatima Jinnah, Pakistani dentist and politician 1970 - Sigrid Holmquist, Swedish actress 1971 - Karl Ast, Estonian author and politician 1972 - Robert Weede, American opera singer 1974 - Earl Warren, American jurist and politician, 14th Chief Justice of the United States 1977 - Alice Paul, American activist 1979 - Cornelia Otis Skinner, American actress and author 1980 - Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet, playwright, and composer 1984 - Edna Ernestine Kramer, American mathematician 1985 - Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg 1985 - Jimmy Kinnon, Scottish-American activist, founded Narcotics Anonymous 1986 - Patriarch Nicholas VI of Alexandria 1992 - Kelvin Coe, Australian ballet dancer 1992 - Eric Sevareid, American journalist 1993 - Metin Altıok, Turkish poet and educator 1994 - Bill Mosienko, Canadian ice hockey player 1996 - Melvin Belli, American lawyer 1999 - Robert de Cotret, Canadian politician, 56th Secretary of State for Canada 2000 - Doug Fisher, English actor 2002 - Mayo Kaan, American bodybuilder 2002 - Rod Steiger, American actor 2004 - Paul Klebnikov, American journalist and historian 2004 - Isabel Sanford, American actress 2005 - Chuck Cadman, Canadian engineer and politician 2005 - Yevgeny Grishin, Russian speed skater 2005 - Alex Shibicky, Canadian ice hockey player 2006 - Milan Williams, American keyboard player and producer 2007 - Charles Lane, American actor 2008 - Séamus Brennan, Irish accountant and politician, Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport 2010 - Jessica Anderson, Australian author and playwright 2011 - Don Ackerman, American basketball player 2011 - Facundo Cabral, Argentinian singer-songwriter 2012 - Shin Jae-chul, South Korean-American martial artist 2012 - Chick King, American baseball player 2012 - Terepai Maoate, Cook Islander physician and politician, 6th Prime Minister of the Cook Islands 2012 - Eugênio Sales, Brazilian cardinal 2013 - Markus Büchel, Liechtensteiner politician, 9th Prime Minister of Liechtenstein 2013 - Andrew Nori, Solomon lawyer and politician 2013 - Kiril of Varna, Bulgarian metropolitan 2013 - Barbara Robinson, American author and poet 2013 - Toshi Seeger, American activist, co-founded the Clearwater Festival 2014 - Lorenzo Álvarez Florentín, Paraguayan violinist and composer 2014 - David Azrieli, Polish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist 2014 - Eileen Ford, American businesswoman, co-founded Ford Models 2014 - John Spinks, English guitarist and songwriter 2015 - Christian Audigier, French fashion designer 2015 - Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Saudi Arabian economist and politician, Saudi Arabian Minister of Foreign Affairs 2019 - William E. Dannemeyer, American politician 2019 - Ross Perot, American businessman and politician 2019 - Fernando de la Rúa, 43rd President of Argentina 2019 - Rip Torn, American actor 2019 - Freddie Jones, English actor Holidays and observances Arbor Day Christian Feast Day: *Agilulfus of Cologne *Amandina of Schakkebroek *Blessed Marija Petković *Everilda *Gregorio Grassi *Martyr Saints of China *Martyrs of Gorkum *Our Lady of Itatí *Our Lady of Peace, Octave of the Visitation *Our Lady of the Rosary of Chiquinquirá *Pauline of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus *Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury *Veronica Giuliani *July 9 Constitution Day Constitution Day Constitutionalist Revolution Day Day of the Employees of the Diplomatic Service Earliest day on which Martyrdom of the Báb can fall, while July 10 is the latest; observed on the 17th of Raḥmat Independence Day, celebrates the declaration of independence of the United Provinces of South America by the Congress of Tucumán in 1816. Independence Day, celebrates the independence of South Sudan from Sudan in 2011. Nunavut Day Places July 9 Avenue
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