Media conglomerate

A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet. According to the magazine The Nation, "Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets around the world."


A conglomerate is a large company composed of a number of smaller companies engaged in generally unrelated businesses.
Some media conglomerates use their access in multiple areas to share various kinds of content such as: news, video and music, between users. The media sector's tendency to consolidate has caused formerly diversified companies to appear less diverse to prospective investors in comparison with similar companies that are traded publicly and privately. Therefore, the term media group may also be applied, however, it has not yet replaced the more traditional term.


Critics have accused the large media conglomerates of dominating the media and using unfair practices. During a protest in November 2007, critics such as Jesse Jackson spoke out against consolidation of the media. This can be seen in the news industry, where corporations refuse to publicize information that would be harmful to their interests. Because some corporations do not publish any material that criticizes them or their interests, media conglomerates have been criticized for limiting free speech or not protecting free speech. These practices are also suspected of contributing to the merging of entertainment and news at the expense of the coverage of serious issues. They are also accused of being a leading force behind the standardization of culture and are frequently criticized by groups that perceive news organizations as being biased toward special interests of the owners.
Because these conglomerates have so much power and influence, critics bring up the question of whether that amount of power is justifiable. It can and is easily abused. Some wonder if it's better to lessen the amount of conglomerates to reduce the likeliness of unfair practices.
There is also criticism that the concentration of media ownership reduces diversity in both ownership and programming of TV shows and radio programs. Because there are fewer independent media, there is less diversity in news and entertainment and therefore less competition. This can result in the reduction of different points of view as well as vocalization about different issues. There is also a lack of ethnic and gender diversity as a majority of those in media are white, middle-class men. There is a concern that their views are being shared disproportionately more than other groups, such as women and ethnic minorities. Women and minorities also have less ownership of media. Women have less than 7 percent of TV and radio licenses, and minorities have around 7 percent of radio licenses and 3 percent of TV licenses.

Examples by country

In the 2020 Forbes Global 2000 list, AT&T was America's largest media conglomerate, in terms of revenue, with Comcast, The Walt Disney Company, & ViacomCBS completing the top four.
In 1984, fifty independent media companies owned the majority of media interests within the United States. By 2011, 90% of the United States's media was controlled by six media conglomerates: GE/Comcast, News Corp Disney, Viacom, Time Warner and CBS.
Between 1941 and 1975, several laws that restricted channel ownership within radio and television were enacted in order to maintain unbiased and diverse media. However under the Reagan administration, Congress and the Federal Communications Commission, then led by FCC Chairman Mark S. Fowler, began a concerted deregulation over the years 1981 and 1985. The number of television stations a single entity can own increased from seven to 12 stations.
The industry continued to deregulate with enactment of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Signed by President Bill Clinton on February 8, 1996, it was considered by the FCC to be the "first major overhaul of telecommunications law in almost 62 years". In the radio industry, the 40-station ownership cap was lifted, leading to an unprecedented amount of consolidation. Since this period, Clear Channel Communications grew from 40 stations to 1200 stations, in all 50 states, while Viacom grew to owning 180 stations across 41 markets.
As media consolidation grew, some in the nation began to speculate how it might negatively impact society at large. In the case of Minot, North Dakota, the concerns regarding media consolidation is realized. On January 18, 2002, a train containing hazardous chemicals derailed in the middle of the night, exposing countless Minot residents to toxic waste. Upon trying to get out an emergency broadcast, the Minot police were unable to reach anyone. They were instead forwarded to the same automated message, as all the broadcast stations in Minot were single-handedly owned by Clear Channel Communications. As the FCC reviews media ownership rules, broadcasters continued to petition it for the elimination of all rules, while those who are against this easing would often cite the incident in Minot as how consolidation could be harmful.
Like the United States, Canada, Australia, the Philippines, and New Zealand also experience the concentration of multiple media enterprises in a few companies. This concentration is an ongoing concern for the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, the Philippine National Telecommunications Commission, and New Zealand's Broadcasting Standards Authority.
Other countries that have large media conglomerates with impacts on the world include: Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, China, and Brazil. Media conglomerates outside of the United States include Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings, ProSiebenSat.1, Hubert Burda Meda, Fuji Media Holdings, ITV, Mediaset, Axel Springer, JCDecaux, China Central Television, ABS-CBN Corporation, GMA Network, Inc., Asahi Shimbun Company, Grupo Globo, Baidu, and Bertelsmann.

United States

ComcastThe Walt Disney CompanyViacomCBSAT&TAccess IndustriesDiscovery, Inc.Hasbro
Movie productionUniversal Filmed Entertainment GroupWalt Disney Studios, UTV Motion Pictures Paramount Motion Pictures GroupWarner Bros. Pictures GroupAI Film, RatPac-Dune Entertainment, Access Entertainment Lionsgate Films Allspark Pictures, Entertainment One Films
TV productionNBCUniversal Content Studios, Sky Studios, DWA TelevisionDisney TV Studios, It's a Laugh Productions, Disney TV Animation, FX Productions, Freeform Productions, Marvel TVParamount TV Studios, Nickelodeon Animation Studio, CBS Films, CBS TV StudiosWB TV Group, WB Animation, WBITVP, Cartoon Network StudiosAmedia Discovery Studios, All3Media, Lionsgate Television Allspark, Allspark Animation, Boulder Media, Entertainment One Television
Broadcast TV networkNBC, Cozi TV, Sky,
Telemundo, TeleXitos
ABC, LWN ; Super RTL, RTL2 CBS, The CW, Decades Chilevision, The CW R.G.E. Group Discovery Networks U.S., Discovery International
Cable channelsNBCUniversal Cable, SkyDisney Channels, UTV net, A&E Networks, Fox Nets Group, Freeform, FX Networks, NatGeo Net ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks, ViacomCBS Networks InternationalTBS, TNT, TruTV, Cartoon Network, HBOR.G.E. Group Discovery Networks U.S., Discovery InternationalDiscovery Family
News, business channels/
NBCUniversal News Group, Sky NewsABC News, ABC News RadioCBS News, CBSNCNN, HLN
National sports networks/
NBC Sports Group, Sky Sports, NHL Network ESPN Inc. CBS SportsTurner Sports, AT&T SportsNet, MLB Network, NBA TVSports Channel Eurosport, DSport
Back Lot MusicABC Audio, Disney Music Group, Fox Music, Marvel New Media, Radio Disney NetworksComedy Central Records, Nick Records, CBS RecordsWaterTower MusicWarner Music GroupeOne Music
PublishingMarvel Comics, National Geographic, Disney Publishing WorldwideSimon & SchusterDC Comics, MAD MagazineGolf Digest, Golf World; Motor Trend Group
OTTPeacock, Now TV, Sky Go, XumoDisney+, Hulu, ESPN+, Hotstar, Marvel UnlimitedCBS All Access, Pluto TV, BET+, Noggin, ShowtimeHBO Max, AT&T TV Now, HBO Now, DC Universe, Boomerang, Crunchyroll,DAZN GolfTV
InternetFandango Disney Online, Disney Digital NetworkMTV New Media, CNETFandango, Otter MediaDeezerGroup Nine Media
TelecommunicationsXfinity, Sky BroadbandWalt Disney DTCI Inc.AT&T CommunicationsICE Group
Video gamesUniversal Brand DevelopmentDisney Games and Interactive Experiences, Marvel Games, LucasArtsParamount Digital EntertainmentWarner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, Rooster Teeth GamesArchetype Entertainment, Tuque Games
2018 RevenuesNBCUniversal: US$33 billion
US$59.4 billionViacom: US$13 billion
CBS Corporation: US$14.5 billion
WarnerMedia: US$31.5 billionUS$17 billionUS$10.6 billionUS$4.7 billion



Sony Bertelsmann Vivendi Liberty Global Essel Group CT Corp Televisa Grupo Globo ABS-CBN Corporation The Times Group PLDT
Movie productionSony Pictures Motion Picture Group, Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan UFAEagle Rock Entertainment, StudioCanal, Polygram Lionsgate Films Zee StudiosTransinema PicturesVideocineGlobo FilmesStar Cinema, Skylight FilmsMirchi Movies Limited, Junglee Pictures LimitedCignal Entertainment
TV productionSony Pictures Television, Syco Fremantle Banijay Entertainment, Zodiak Media, Endemol, Endemol Shine GroupAll3Media, Lionsgate Television Essel Vision ProductionsEstúdios GloboABS-CBN Entertainment, Dreamscape Entertainment, Star Creatives TVMetropolitan Media Company LimitedCignal Entertainment
Broadcast TV networkGetTV Buzzr
RTL Group
Canal+ GroupTelenet, Ziggo, ITV plc, Virgin Media Television Zee Media Corporation, Zee Entertainment EnterprisesTrans TV, Trans7Las Estrellas, Canal 5, Canal 9, FOROtvRede Globo, Globosat, Globo TV InternationalABS-CBNTimes Global Broadcasting and Zoom Entertainment Network5
Cable channelsSony Pictures Television NetworksBuzzr
RTL Group
Canal+ GroupTelenet, Ziggo, ITV plc, Virgin Media Television Zee Media Corporation, Zee Entertainment EnterprisesSBS-in Televisa NetworksCreative Programs, ABS-CBN GlobalTimes Music, Movies Now, Romedy NowColours, One Screen, PBA Rush, Sari-Sari Channel
News, business channels/
CNewsZee NewsCNN Indonesia GloboNewsABS-CBN News, ABS-CBN News ChannelET Now, Lead India, Mirror Now, Times NowNews5, One News, One PH
National sports networks/
Sony ESPN Sports Channel Canal SportZiggo Sport Golf Channel Indonesia, Golf+TDNSporTVABS-CBN Sports, ABS-CBN Sports+ActionOne Sports, One Sports, One Sports+
Sony Music Group, EMI Music Publishing, Sony Music Entertainment Japan BMGUniversal Music GroupZee Music CompanyTrans Talent ManagementSom LivreMOR Philippines, Radyo Patrol, Star MusicZoom, Radio MirchiRadyo5
PublishingGruner + Jahr, Penguin Random House, Bertelsmann Printing GroupEditisEditorial Televisa, IntermexEditora GloboABS-CBN PublishingThe Times of India, The Economic Times, Navbharat Times, The Illustrated Weekly of India The Philippine Star, BusinessWorld
OTTFunimationNowzeeBlimGloboplayiWant, Sky On DemandGaana.comCignal Play
InternetDailymotionplaywindetik NetworkComercio Más, Televisa DigitalGlobo.comABS-CBN Digital, CricBuzz, TimesJobs, SimplyMarry, MagicBricks, ZigWheels
TelecommunicationsSony Mobile, So-netUPC Broadband, Virgin Media, Telenet , Vodafone Netherlands Izzi TelecomABS-CBN Convergence, Sky Cable Corporation PLDT, Smart, TNT, Sun Cellular, Cignal TV
Video gamesSony Interactive Entertainment, UntiesGameloftABS-CBN Multimedia
2018 RevenuesSony Entertainment: Trans Corp: